Measurement Library

PRCI Publications (2012)

PRCI

L52363 Ultrasonic Meter Accuracy Shifts Resulting From Grime on the Meter Body and Acoustic Transducers
Author(s): Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
Similar to most metering technologies, ultrasonic meters are known to be affected by the buildup of material on the inside of the meter and surrounding pipe due to common pipe contaminants. The buildup affects the metering accuracy by reducing the flow area and causing an increase in the gas velocity through the meter, by changing the shape of the velocity profile through the creation of additional roughness elements on the pipe wall, and by altering the ability of the ultrasonic signal to transmit between the transducers. A need existed to investigate accuracy shifts resulting from the grime build up from continuous use in the field on the acoustic transducers.
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PR-015-08611-R01 Development of Clamp-On Ultrasonic Meter Installation Guidelines
Author(s): Hawley, Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
Clamp-on ultrasonic meters remain of interest to the natural gas measurement community because of their potential to provide reasonable measurement accuracy without the need for piping modifications or service interruptions. The applications where clamp-on meters have been successfully applied include temporary measurement while a primary device is unavailable and diagnosing abnormal flow behaviors. The objective of this project was to examine existing public literature concerning the operation and application of clamp-on ultrasonic meters and to use this information to create a guideline document for these meters. As part of the process of establishing the guidelines document, the most significant areas where experimental results are lacking were to be identified. A total of only 20 documents in the public domain were discovered concerning clamp-on ultrasonic meters. These documents were summarized and the important conclusions were drawn from the documents and used to help create a draft guidelines document for the use of clamp-on ultrasonic meters in gas applications. The guidelines provide an overview of different geometric, operational, and installation effects that can affect the operation of clamp-on ultrasonic meters. A number of areas without substantial experimental results were identified and testing was recommended to systematically establish the performance envelope for one size of clamp-on ultrasonic meters. The suggested testing was intended as a first step in reducing the gaps in meter performance data.
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PR-015-10602-R01 Effects of Liquid Contamination on Ultrasonic Flow Meter Performance
Author(s): George, Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
A known cause of error in in-line ultrasonic meters is the presence of liquid contamination on transducer faces. These liquids can come from unconventional or poor-quality gas supplies, but compressor oil or glycol can also enter the natural gas stream due to problems with upstream equipment. It has been suspected that liquid contamination produces a fundamental measurement error in ultrasonic pulse transit time, which leads to biases in the measured sound speed of the gas and, ultimately, flow measurement errors. Operators presently observe such differences in measured sound speeds, but often do not understand that they may be linked to the presence of liquids. Having such an understanding could lead to solutions to manage the problem, such as diagnostics to identify the cause of the liquid contamination and prompt maintenance on the equipment producing the liquids. Such diagnostics could reduce the resulting measurement errors and related lost-and-unaccounted-for (LAUF) gas amounts. This report documents a research project to characterize ultrasonic meter response to liquid contaminants produced by pipeline operations, particularly compressor oil and glycol. Tests were performed using multiple brands of ultrasonic meters and multiple types of transducers, with flow data and diagnostics collected from each meter. The data were analyzed to answer three questions: (1) how the diagnostic ability of the meter depends upon the meter and transducer designs, (2) whether ultrasonic meter diagnostics can identify liquid contaminant types, and (3) how various liquid contaminants affect measurement accuracy.
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PR-015-11701-E01 PRCI Meter Station Design Tool
Author(s): Zepeda
Abstract/Introduction:
User manual and installation software for the meter station design tool.
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PR-352-07602-S01 Multi-Run Uncertainty Tool - V2.02
Author(s): Rans
Abstract/Introduction:
Multi-run meter station uncertainty tool and associated user documents.
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PR-363-08604-R01 Non-Invasive JIP - Single Phase Test Reports
Author(s): TUV SUD NEL Ltd
Abstract/Introduction:
JIP test results from clamp-on ultrasonic meter testing performed at TUV NEL.
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PR-364-09601-R01 Investigation into High Pressure DP Transmitter Calibration
Author(s): Hodges
Abstract/Introduction:
In many applications within the oil and gas industries, and in particular in the measurement of flow, differential pressure transmitters must operate with high accuracy and repeatability. The uncertainty of the measurement of flow varies proportionately to the uncertainty associated with the differential pressure measurement. There are many issues that arise from using differential type meters, and many of these issues are attributable to the differential pressure measurement. Issues such as turndown, linearity, repeatability, hysteresis and others are all important aspects of the differential pressure measurement. To ensure proper differential pressure measurement the oil and gas industry currently requires differential meters to be calibrated in the field. Several studies have shown that there are serious issues involved with performing that calibration in the field. This overall purpose of the Pipeline Research Council International, Incs (PRCI) investigation is to determine what these issues are, and how these issues can best be addressed. PRCI has contracted Colorado Engineering Experiment Station Inc. (CEESI) to perform the investigation. The investigation consisted of two milestones, a literature review and laboratory work. The literature review covered applicable industry standards, papers, articles, and manufacturers specifications. The results of the literature review are included in this report. The second milestone is the laboratory work. This work was performed at the CEESI facility in Colorado during 2011. The results are included in this report.
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PR-364-09601-R02 Investigation into High Pressure DP Transmitter Calibration Unblinded
Author(s): Hodges
Abstract/Introduction:
In many applications within the oil and gas industries, and in particular in the measurement of flow, differential pressure transmitters must operate with high accuracy and repeatability. The uncertainty of the measurement of flow varies proportionately to the uncertainty associated with the differential pressure measurement. There are many issues that arise from using differential type meters, and many of these issues are attributable to the differential pressure measurement. Issues such as turndown, linearity, repeatability, hysteresis and others are all important aspects of the differential pressure measurement. To ensure proper differential pressure measurement the oil and gas industry currently requires differential meters to be calibrated in the field. Several studies have shown that there are serious issues involved with performing that calibration in the field. The overall purpose of the Pipeline Research Council International, Incs (PRCI) investigation is to determine what these issues are, and how these issues can best be addressed. This is the unblinded version of the report.
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PR-364-09606-R01 Investigation into the Jetting Behavior of Perforated Plate Flow Conditioners
Author(s): Harman
Abstract/Introduction:
A study was conducted to determine the presence of jetting downstream of a perforated plate flow conditioner in an 8 inch pipe flowing high pressure natural gas. Data presented indicates no measurable jetting is present 10 pipe diameters (10D) downstream of the perforated plate tested from 110 FPS to 10 FPS. Slight velocity profile anomalies were detected 3D downstream of the perforated plate, and severe jetting was detected at 0.9D. Additionally, a double-blind CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model was created for the three different test configurations. The CFD modeling results showed good agreement with experimental data.
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