Measurement Library

PRCI Publications (2014)

PRCI

PR-015-13606-R01 Ultrasonic Meter Performance in Liquid Transients
Author(s): Hawley, Thorson
Abstract/Introduction:
This research evaluated the performance of select ultrasonic meters in natural gas flows before, during, and after transient liquid contamination from compressor oil and glycol. The research program evaluated the performance recovery characteristics of each ultrasonic meter after an extended period of dry gas flow and after meter cleaning. The diagnostics of the meters were also monitored to determine if they could be used to determine the presence of liquid contamination.
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PR-015-13610-R01 Effect of Upstream Piping Configuration on Ultrasonic Meter Bias - Flow Validation
Author(s): Hawley, Owston, Thorson
Abstract/Introduction:
This research demonstrated the ability of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach to predict the severity of velocity profile disturbances in two different header configurations with AGA-9 default meter runs. The CFD model was also used to predict the flow measurement error based on the ultrasonic path geometry from four commercially-available ultrasonic flow meters. In addition to the CFD modeling, this project experimentally tested the same two header configurations in a natural gas flow loop. The results from the experimental testing were used to validate the CFD model.
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PR-015-13611-R01 Evaluation of Selected Sampling Techniques on Hydrocarbon-Wet Gas Streams
Author(s): George,Grant,Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
This project evaluated selected single-phase gas sampling methods as candidates for use in sampling hydrocarbon-wet gas streams and obtaining representative samples of only the gas phase, rather than samples of both the gas and liquid. Two spot sampling methods, the helium pop method and the floating piston cylinder method, were chosen for evaluation. To capture samples of only the gas phase required one or more arrangements for separating liquids from the sample stream. To this end, a coalescing filter and a vortex separator were chosen for testing with the two sampling methods. The various sampling approaches were tested using the Sampling Method Performance Verification Procedure of API MPMS Chapter 14.1, Appendix F, adapted as appropriate for use in hydrocarbon-wet gas streams. Preliminary tests at SwRIs Metering Research Facility (MRF) were used to identify possible problems with the equipment and sampling procedures, so that the equipment and procedures could be corrected before the formal tests were conducted. The formal tests were performed at a field site carrying a hydrocarbon-wet gas stream from a shale formation. Results of the formal tests produced recommendations to improve the general ability of the chosen wet-gas sampling method to capture accurate samples of the gas phase, as well as recommended changes to the API Sampling Verification Procedure for testing wet-gas sampling methods.
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PR-179-12603-R02 Energy Meter Performance Assessment Phase 1 Amendment - Unblinded
Author(s): Olsen, Wise
Abstract/Introduction:
Many pipelines utilize system chromatographs at delivery locations. The energy content of the gas delivered can have a significant time skew from the chromatograph. Therefore, the energy content of the gas at a delivery point may differ significantly from its associated system chromatograph. On lean burn engines with tight emission controls, changes in the energy content of the fuel gas can significantly alter the amount of air required to maintain emissions compliance. A reliable, low cost, and fast responding energy meter is desired for both scenarios described. Four Energy Meters are evaluated with six different gas compositions representative of gas compositions encountered on natural gas pipelines. The Energy Meter data is compared to a Micro GC to assess accuracy. After evaluation of the Energy Meters the same six gas compositions were operated in a CFR engine to measure methane number. The measured methane numbers are compared with methane numbers computed from energy meter data.
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PR-179-12603-R03 Energy Meter Performance Assessment Phase 1 Amendment - Blinded
Author(s): Olsen, Wise
Abstract/Introduction:
Many pipelines utilize system chromatographs at delivery locations. The energy content of the gas delivered can have a significant time skew from the chromatograph. Therefore, the energy content of the gas at a delivery point may differ significantly from its associated system chromatograph. On lean burn engines with tight emission controls, changes in the energy content of the fuel gas can significantly alter the amount of air required to maintain emissions compliance. A reliable, low cost, and fast responding energy meter is desired for both scenarios described. Four Energy Meters are evaluated with six different gas compositions representative of gas compositions encountered on natural gas pipelines. The Energy Meter data is compared to a Micro GC to assess accuracy. After evaluation of the Energy Meters the same six gas compositions were operated in a CFR engine to measure methane number. The measured methane numbers are compared with methane numbers computed from energy meter data.
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PR-343-14601-R01 Smart USM Diagnostics - Phase 3
Author(s): Zanker
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic flow meters, especially those that exploit multiple paths to achieve higher accuracies, are capable of extensive self-diagnosis. Each ultrasonic meter manufacturer has tended to devel-op diagnostic tools specific to his particular device. This has led to a confusing mix of offerings that are not transportable between meters and whose names and interpretations are not always consistent. The focus of this effort has been to examine four areas that yield information indicative of both the health of the meter and the quality of the measurements it is providing: (1) the meter design and how this impacts the individual diagnostics, (2) the timing aspects of the measurement, (3) the indicators of transducer performance and (4) the observed velocity profile characteristics. This work extends the previous analysis of Daniel and Instromet (Elster) ultrasonic meters to in-clude Sick and Krohne meters. It also updates the Daniel and Instromet information and looks at graphical displays that help with condition based monitoring.
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PR-363-13600-S01 Liquid Meter Facility Uncertainty Analysis Tool 2.2
Author(s): Alick MacGillivray
Abstract/Introduction:
A macro enabled Excel spreadsheet used to estimate the uncertainty associated with liquid measurement facilities.
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PR-443-13605-R01 Sensors for Gas Quality Monitoring
Author(s): Deininger
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this project was to determine the suitability of low cost environmental air quality sensors, for detection of pipeline gas quality. In particular, this project examined options for detection and quantification of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), water (H2O), and oxygen (O2). All of the sensors used were based on Synkeras existing anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) platform and detection chemistry. The key challenge of this effort was laboratory based demonstration of the feasibility of detecting these three components in natural gas at pressures exceeding 1 atmosphere
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