Measurement Library

PRCI Publications (2015)

PRCI

PO-015-14613-R01 The Effect of Orifice Plate Bore Thickness on Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
A set of test matrix points were made on a 10 Daniel Senior orifice fitting with different orifice plates to assess the impact of e thickness of an orifice plate on measurement accuracy.
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PR-004-14604-R01 Miniaturized Gas Chromatography and Gas Quality Sensor
Author(s): Bora et al.
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry currently relies on gas chromatography to evaluate the composition of natural gas including alkanes, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen. The higher and lower heating values, Wobbe Index, Hydrocarbon Dewpoint, Methane Number, and viscosity are all calculated from the gas composition. The need to understand the composition of fuel gas and to monitor its components is crucial to the natural gas industry. Monitoring the composition of the fuel gas provides the industry with the capability of protecting valuable underground assets, delivering gas that meets end-usage requirements, and tracking of constituents for both billing purposes and to ensure compliance with tariff agreements. As with any technology, there are limitations to gas chromatography. Limitations can include high cost, time delay, inability to sample at high pressure, and selectiveness of gas chromatography detectors. This project consisted of a technology assessment of currently available and emerging technologies including micro gas chromatographs, optical spectrometers, and mass spectrometers for their ability to determine gas composition compared to current GC technology. Technologies were investigated and assessed by their analytical characteristics (what components they could analyze and detection limits), their sampling characteristics (sampling pressure limits, scan time, and emissions), and their operational characteristics (availability, cost, consumables, maintenance, and packaging). Recommendations for further testing were made on the technologies whose characteristics showed the most promise for analysis of natural gas at custody transfer points.
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PR-015-14600-R01 New Generation USM in Compact Installations Without Flow Conditioners
Author(s): Witte, Grant
Abstract/Introduction:
Certain new ultrasonic meter designs in were evaluated in compact installations. The natural gas industry is interested in realizing possible capital cost savings that would be achieved if ultrasonic meters could be installed in a configuration using meter tube lengths that are shorter than those commonly used today. As a starting point for this study, the short- and close-coupled installation details described in American Gas Association Report 7, Measurement of Gas by Turbine Meters, were accepted as reasonable short dimension installations to be studied. This document reports on the test results for three different new ultrasonic meter designs that were evaluated in the short-coupled and close-coupled installations Recommendations are made for industrys application of these technologies. This study was developed in two parts, Phase I and Phase II. Phase I was focused on ultrasonic meter performance with ideal inlet flow conditions to the meter tube assembly. Phase II examined the response of the meters when the compact meter assembly was subjected to perturbed inlet flow conditions.
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PR-015-14603-R01 Turbine and Coriolis Meter Diagnostics with Entrained Liquids
Author(s): Hawley, Thorson
Abstract/Introduction:
This research evaluated the performance of select Coriolis and turbine meters in natural gas flows before, during, and after a wet gas flow condition. Low viscosity oil was used as the liquid phase for the testing. On-board diagnostics from the Coriolis meters and auxiliary diagnostics for the turbine meters were used to determine if the presence and loading amount of the liquid could be determined.
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PR-015-14603-R02 Turbine and Coriolis Meter Diagnostics with Entrained Liquids - Unblinded
Author(s): Hawley, Thorson
Abstract/Introduction:
This research evaluated the performance of select Coriolis and turbine meters in natural gas flows before, during, and after a wet gas flow condition. Low viscosity oil was used as the liquid phase for the testing. On-board diagnostics from the Coriolis meters and auxiliary diagnostics for the turbine meters were used to determine if the presence and loading amount of the liquid could be determined.
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PR-015-14608-R01 Technical Review of Standards for Thermowell Design
Author(s): George,Grant
Abstract/Introduction:
A thermowell design standard published by ASME was recently updated to incorporate new knowledge about dynamic loads on thermowells and other factors affecting thermowell integrity and measurement accuracy. There are concerns that assumptions in the ASME standard may cause significant measurement inaccuracies or conservative designs that require significant changes to natural gas installations. To avoid thermowell damage and measure natural gas temperatures accurately, pipeline operators have requested additional guidance on thermowell design and installation. This study investigated current thermowell standards and research to provide PRCI members, meter station designers, and the natural gas industry with guidelines to design thermowells that meet accuracy and integrity requirements. Relevant design requirements from ASME and other thermowell standards were examined to summarize and compare insertion length requirements, recommended materials, and guidance for temperature accuracy. Research publications were reviewed for experimental data to identify design parameters that affect thermowell integrity and measurement accuracy, and to determine whether separate natural gas design guidelines could be developed or whether modifications should be recommended to the ASME procedure. Priority was given to experimental results over analytical and computational data. The review also focused on thermowell performance in natural gas at transmission pipeline conditions, defined here as pressures up to 1,800 psig (124 barg) and flow velocities up to 125 ft/s (38 m/s). Key design parameters were identified that can be used as a starting point for a natural gas thermowell design and installation procedure. A gap analysis identified further research needs for thermowell performance in natural gas service.
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PR-015-14609-R01 Study of Sample Probe Minimum Insertion Depth Requirements
Author(s): George, Grant
Abstract/Introduction:
Probes for natural gas sample collection and analysis must extend far enough into the pipeline to avoid contaminants at the pipe wall, but must not be so long that there is a risk of flow-induced resonant vibration and failure. PRCI has sponsored a project to determine the minimum probe depth for obtaining a representative single-phase gas sample in flows with small amounts of contaminants. To this end, Phase 1 of the project involved a review of existing literature and industry standards to identify key probe design parameters. Several current standards for sampling clean, dry natural gas were reviewed, and their requirements for sample probe dimensions and mounting arrangements were compared. Some of these standard requirements suggested probe designs and sampling approaches that could be used to collect gas-only samples from two-phase flows. A literature review identified many useful studies of two-phase flows and phase behavior. While few of these studies evaluated probe designs, the majority examined the behavior of gas and liquid in two-phase flows, methods of predicting flow regimes, and methods of predicting flow conditions that define the minimum probe depth for gas-only samples in gas-liquid flows. Useful recommendations were provided for selecting general probe features where liquids must be rejected from the gas sample. A basic design procedure was also provided to select the minimum sample probe insertion length and optimum installation position for known flow conditions. Plans to test the recommendations and the design procedure in Phase 2 of the project were also discussed. This report has a related webinar.
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PR-015-15602-R01 Review of Ultrasonic Flow Meter Installation Effects
Author(s): Thorson
Abstract/Introduction:
A literature review was conducted in order to better understand the effects of installation effects on ultrasonic flow meters. Literature in the public domain was reviewed to analyze the state of knowledge and to provide information that is relevant when deciding to allocate limited research budgets. The results are summarized in this report and in a digital analysis tool that will be delivered separately from this report.
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PR-261-15609-R01 Machine Learning Algorithms for Smart Meter Diagnostics Part II (TR2701)
Author(s): Crowe
Abstract/Introduction:
Modern smart meters provide an abundance of diagnostic data. Detecting abnormalities in this data can be difficult given the sheer quantity of information. Determining what kind of readings constitute normal operation versus an impending problem has been the subject of significant research however, there is still room for improvement in real-time fault monitoring. Statistical models known as Machine Learning Algorithms (MLAs) have been identified as a potential solution. A new feature set was selected that allowed for extension of MLAs to ultrasonic meters with different path arrangements. Principal Component Analysis was used to give structure to and visualize multidimensional ultrasonic meter data. The results showed that MLAs may be extended to meters of different sizes, manufacturers, and from different flow facilities.
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PR-343-14605-R01 Ultrasonic Meter Recalibration Frequency Phase 2
Author(s): Zanker
Abstract/Introduction:
In this project, all relevant publications available since the completion of the previous PRCI recalibration research efforts (5 years) that address the stability of ultrasonic metersa and the results of recalibration were reviewed. The review concentrates on the use of ultrasonic meter diagnostics as a guideline for the need for recalibration rather than time in service. This study includes subsequent recalibration data and a questionnaire to indicate if users of ultrasonic meters have utilized ultrasonic meter diagnostics to determine the need for recalibration.
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PR-343-14607-R01 Miniaturized Gas Chromatography and Gas Quality Sensor
Author(s): Hall, Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
In natural gas transmission and distribution, many metering stations utilize gas chromatography to ensure the gas complies with the pipelines gas quality tariff provisions and to determine the chemical energy content of the gas for billing purposes. It is also used as a check on the operation of gas ultrasonic flowmeters through a calculation of the speed of sound in the gas. Because of limitations on existing gas chromatographs (GCs), including high installed cost, analysis time, carrier gas consumption and others, there is a desire to consider alternate technologies for natural gas analysis. PRCI has sponsored a study of technologies that utilize the variation in absorption/scattering of optical wavelengths by different molecules. The purpose of this study is to extend that study to the use of additional technologies, such as MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems). This is not a new approach, but recent advancements offer a greater possibility of achievement of the desired goals than in the past. This study reviewed and evaluated work in process with MEMS technology to provide a smaller, less ex-pensive, lower-power and faster GC that can be utilized in a Class 1 Division 2 area. Developments at both commercial firms and in university MEMS research programs have been included. Since there have been several programs to evaluate energy meters that attempt to measure gas quality by calculating the BTU content of a gas sample, this study focused on micro-GCs that can make a much more precise measurement of gas quality.
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PR-364-11706-R01 Testing In-Situ Coriolis Meter Verification Technology Detecting Corrosion and Erosion
Author(s): Harman
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis flow meter diagnostics have made numerous advances in the past five years. Manufactures claim that they can detect corrosion build-up and coriolis tube erosion with their diagnostic software. This manufacturer-blinded study provides diagnostic results from a coriolis meter flow tested in water and in air at three different test pressures. Using wax, the meter was fouled to three different thicknesses, and eroded using sand-laden air. Wax-fouled and eroded flow performance and diagnostic results are compared to baseline data to substantiate and refute manufacturers claims.
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