Measurement Library

PRCI Publications (2016)

PRCI

PR-015-13609-R01 Ethylene Measurements Using Coriolis Technology
Author(s): Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
Testing was completed to assess the applicability of Coriolis flow meters in the measurement of super-critical ethylene. The tests were conducted over the course of more than one year with three brands of Coriolis meters installed in a field site and compared to flow results from a standard orifice meter.
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PR-015-15601-R01 Pulsation Effects on Ultrasonic Meters Phase II
Author(s): Darin George,Christopher Grant
Abstract/Introduction:
Transmission and storage operations frequently move natural gas using reciprocating compressors that may generate flow pulsations. Most measurement systems cannot accurately measure the flow rate of a pulsating gas stream, and the resulting errors can cause inaccurate gas volumes and accounting imbalances. A previous PRCI research project tested whether recent advances in ultrasonic meters may allow them to function without measurement error in pulsating flows. This project expanded on the previous work and tested similar ultrasonic meters to look for relationships between ultrasonic meter transducer sampling rates, the frequency and amplitudes of pulsations from reciprocating compressors, and meter accuracy. Diagnostics and flow data were collected from the meters and analyzed, and a useful relationship was found between the pulsation conditions and the meter measurement error. The findings were used to recommend a basis for installing ultrasonic meters in gas pipelines with varying pulsations. Additional testing evaluated a fast-response differential pressure transducer connected across a plate flow conditioner as a potential pulsation diagnostic tool.
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PR-015-15603-R01 Effect of Upstream Piping Components on Ultrasonic Flow Meter Accuracy - Unblinded
Author(s): Hawley, Thorson
Abstract/Introduction:
This project investigated the velocity profile downstream from three commercially available dry gas filters and the effect of this profile on an ultrasonic meter installed in an AGA 9 default configuration. The inlet profile and condition of the filter element were varied to determine the sensitivity on the profile exiting the filter.
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PR-015-15603-R02 Effect of Upstream Piping Components on Ultrasonic Flow Meter Accuracy
Author(s): Hawley, Thorson
Abstract/Introduction:
This project investigated the velocity profile downstream from three commercially available dry gas filters and the effect of this profile on an ultrasonic meter installed in an AGA 9 default configuration. The inlet profile and condition of the filter element were varied to determine the sensitivity on the profile exiting the filter.
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PR-015-15605-R01 In-Situ Proving Techniques for Gas Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Grant
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of this research was to identify existing technology and conceptualize potential techniques to prove or validate gas ultrasonic meters in-situ using in-body or in meter run methods. The concepts were generated with literature reviews, interviews with industry experts, and brainstorming with experts in several professional interests. In addition to the tools used in flow measurement, tools and concepts from fields such as medicine and micro technology were also considered. An evaluation methodology specifically pertaining to natural gas applications and meter runs with ultrasonic meters was developed with input from the PRCI project team. Using the methodology, a total of thirteen potential ultrasonic meter proving and verification techniques were evaluated. Each concept was described in detail and ranked in order of estimated feasibility for application in industrial natural gas applications.
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PR-015-16601-R01 Variation in Orifice Plate Flow Performance as a Function of Geometric Plate Tolerances
Author(s): Grimley, Grant
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurement tests were conducted with more than 25 API 14.3 compliant orifice plates that had been geometrically characterized. Possible sources for the variability in the flow measurement performance of these plates were investigated relative to the measured plate geometry elements.
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PR-316-15606-Z01 Equations of State Comparison for Pipeline Compressor Applications
Author(s): Ridens, Simons, Brun
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to have an improved understanding of the applicability of standard EOS in pipeline applications, a set of gas physical property tests were undertaken with sweet and sour natural gas and CO2 mixtures at typical pipeline compositions and conditions, including new high pressure dense phase applications. Specific gas properties tested include gas density (?), specific heat at constant volume (cv), and speed of sound (c or SOS). These results were compared to several of the most commonly used EOS, including NIST, GERG, AGA8, PR, SRK and BWRS, which were also compared to each other.
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