Measurement Library

PRCI Publications (2019)

PRCI

PR-000-16600-R01 Correlative Estimation of Hydrocarbon Dewpoint
Author(s): Gary Choquette,Nolan Choquette
Abstract/Introduction:
Simplified methods to estimate the hydrocarbon cricondentherm hydrocarbon dewpoint temperature and the associated phase curve are desirable in cases with limited processor power/memory or in cases where full gas composition analysis information is not available. This study developed and evaluated several methods to provide reasonable estimates of hydrocarbon dew-point temperature and the phase curve using simplified correlation methods.
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PR-015-17606-R01 End Fed Header Design on Ultrasonic Meter Performance
Author(s): Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
This project evaluated the effect of six different designs of end-fed header configurations on the velocity profile in an American Gas Association Report No. 9 (AGA-9) default ultrasonic flow meter run. The header configurations were experimentally tested using natural gas with one brand of ultrasonic flow meter. The diagnostics from the flow meter were analyzed to determine if they could be used as an indication of bias in the flow measurement. In addition, the flow balance through the header was evaluated.
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PR-015-17606-R03 Flow Conditioner Swirl Reduction Testing
Author(s): Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
This project evaluated the relative performance of the CPA 50E, CPA 55E, and CPA 65E flow conditioners manufactured by Canada Pipeline Accessories (CPA). The flow conditioners were tested to determine their ability to reduce swirl in a natural gas flow and to compare the audible noise of the flow conditioners over a range of flow rates.
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PR-015-17606-R04 Gas Ultrasonic Meter In-Situ Proving
Author(s): Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
This project provided a proof of concept for an in-situ proving method for ultrasonic flow meters in natural gas service. The tested method consisted of simultaneously injecting helium in two locations upstream from an ultrasonic flow meter at a known distance apart. The results from this project showed the tested method was successful in determining the gas velocity through an ultrasonic flow meter to within 7%. The conclusions of this study included recommendations for future optimization of the in-situ proving method to reduce the overall uncertainty.
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PR-015-17606-Z02 Elbow Meter Test Results
Author(s): Terry Grimley,Adam Hawley,Gary Choquette
Abstract/Introduction:
This report presents a brief description and the results of testing performed with long radius elbows that were fitted with pressure taps (at the 45-degree location) to function as differential pressure flow meters. Four different diameters of elbows (2-inch, 4-inch, 6-inch, and 8-inch) were tested at three static pressures (300 psia, 600 psia, and 900 psia) using natural gas. Without consideration for an expansion factor, and using standard elbow dimensions, the results varied from a -2% to +7.5% error relative to the reference flow rate. Also included is a master spreadsheet of the data including data gathered on a 3 elbow at low flow and low density conditions as well as a presentation summarizing an alternate method for calculating the flow coefficient for elbow meters. Some public domain references are also included. The presentation using machine learning regressions was revised 3/19/19.
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PR-015-17608-R01 Assess and Identify Methods to Reduce Ultrasonic Noise Effects on Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): James Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic noise generated by aerodynamic noise attenuating control valves has been known to have an impact on ultrasonic flow meter performance when the noise characteristic is within the frequency range of the ultrasonic transducers and of great enough amplitude to interfere with ultrasonic signal detection by the flow meter electronics. The intent of this project was to demonstrate the effects of control-valve-generated ultrasonic noise on an ultrasonic flow meter. Flow meter performance characteristics observed when exposed to ultrasonic noise were to be identified, and different methods for potential mitigation of the problem were to be experimentally evaluated. Control valve noise characteristics have been previously evaluated by ultrasonic meter manufacturers and control valve manufacturers. However, the specific ultrasonic frequency spectrum characteristics, which are unique to each control valve noise attenuating trim, are proprietary information held by the manufacturers.
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PR-015-17610-Z01 Effects of changing Gas Composition on Flow Measurement Error
Author(s): Terry Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
The influence of measurement errors in gas composition on the energy flow measurement was examined for flow meters based on differential pressure (e.g., orifice, Venturi, and cone), linear volumetric meters (e.g., turbine and ultrasonic), and mass flow meters (e.g., Coriolis). The purpose of this analysis was to develop a process that could be used to assess the requirements for gas composition accuracy and sampling rate to meet a given overall target accuracy in energy flow measurement. Includes associated spreadsheets. There is also a related webinar. ?
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PR-015-18603-R01 Review of PRCI Research on Piping and Header Effects on USM Performance
Author(s): Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
This project provides a review of previously completed PRCI projects on the topic of the effects of upstream disturbances on ultrasonic meter performance. This compendium document includes brief summaries of the projects along with comparisons of the results and general conclusions and recommendations. A gap analysis was also performed to inform the path forward for future research.
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PR-352-16603-Z01 Standardized Meter Calibration Data Protocol and Storage
Author(s): Richard Rans
Abstract/Introduction:
Protocols have been developed to ensure complete and consistent collection of PRCI USM calibration data, logs files and documentation of test piping layout. The protocols also describe how to organize the data for inclusion in the PRCI USM test results database. The database processes the test results into standardized test reports and organizes the data for additional what if analysis of individual and combined test result sets. The zip file includes Excel spreadsheet templates for capturing the data for import into the database. There is also a related webinar.
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PR-363-18604-Z01 Mass-Based Proving Methods for Mass Flow Meters
Author(s): Chris Mills
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the increased utilization of mass-based flowmeters for flow measurement of hydrocarbons, there is a requirement for a direct method for proving/calibrating a mass flowmeter directly using a measured mass. The project objective was to identify, review and rank suitable methods for proving/calibrating a mass-based flowmeter directly using a measured mass. The preferred method has been recommended and potential changes to industry standards have been highlighted. This report has a related webinar.
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PR-616-17607-R01 Sulfur Condensation in Pressure Reduction Equipment
Author(s): David Pack
Abstract/Introduction:
In natural gas transmission pipelines systems, there is a growing awareness of contamination due to the presence of sulfur vapor in the gas stream at sub ppm levels. Particularly at pressure reduction facilities, the sulfur vapor can desublimate out as solid elemental sulfur and then combine with other particle matter and trace liquids in the gas stream to form the observed contamination deposits. In order to better control the formation of the elemental sulfur, an improved understanding of the contribution that the design of pressure regulators make to this desublimation process is required. This research program has come to the challenge of this requirement. In the conducted program, two pressure regulators were tested at a common facility that was known to have an elemental sulfur deposition problem. Each pressure regulator was alternatively placed in service so as each was subjected to, as near as possible, identical operating conditions. A requirement for the selection of the two pressure regulators was that they had to have different internal design features. The quality of the natural gas supply was regularly sampled and analyzed, with the contamination deposits on the pressure regulator internals sampled and analyzed at the termination of the test period. These deposits were analyzed for both hydrocarbon and other liquid deposits as well as a range of metal and semi-metal compounds captured in the deposits.
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PR663-18602-Z01 Guidance for Applying Revised AGA Report 8 Based on Measurement Uncertainty
Author(s): Warren Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
The 2017 revision of AGA (American Gas Association) Report #8 encourages adoption of the new GERG2008 EOS (Equation of State) technology but leaves users with the decision on whether to upgrade. Due to the technical complexity of the subject and the potential financial impact, users seek additional technical guidance so that they may confidently apply this discretion. This project investigates technical methods for arriving at choices which are technically defendable and financially responsible. To provide guidance and tools for users, the project constructed deterministic and probabilistic models that illustrate potential impact of EOS upgrades, applying real-world gas composition, pressure, temperature and flow. A step-by-step sequence for evaluating upgrade potential was also created. Includes calculation spreadsheets.
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