Measurement Library

PRCI Publications (2020)

PRCI

PR-015-17604-R02 Static Mixer Assessment Laboratory Testing
Author(s): Amy McCleney,Terry Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
Static mixers are nonmoving mixing devices that allow for the inline continuous mixing of fluids within a pipeline. Liquid samples are typically extracted downstream of the mixer to evaluate the composition of the fluid. However, the ability of mixers to provide a uniformly mixed sample and the acceptable distances at which this sample can be taken from the pipe for this composition evaluation are currently unknown. A testing effort was initiated to determine the effectiveness of two different static mixer designs, as well as sampling locations, by flowing known quantities of oil and water past these devices at a constant flow rate, with two oil viscosity values of 3 cSt and 400 cSt, and with two nominal water-cut values of 1% and 10%. To evaluate their mixing abilities, fluid samples were drawn from the pipe at three locations downstream of the mixers and at three pipe elevations. These samples were assessed using two different analysis methods: a centrifuge method using ASTM D4007 (2016) for the nominal 10% water-cut tests and a Karl Fisher analysis method using ASTM D4928 (2018) for the nominal 1% water-cut tests. The results from the sample measurements will allow the PRCI members to assess the mixing and stratification effects of different static mixer designs and at different sample locations.
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PR-015-18607-R01 Field Sample Analysis
Author(s): Terry Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
The PRCI project team investigating the deposition of sulfur on pressure regulation equipment (Project MEAS-5-23) recognized that the material identified as sulfur may or may not actually be sulfur for all locations of concern. Specifically, dithiazine has been found in some locations and can form in pressure regulation equipment under circumstances similar to that for sulfur formation. Identifying the specific chemical composition of the deposited material may aid in identifying the underlying source(s) of the material and in developing solutions to mitigate the problems associated with the material deposition in pressure regulation equipment. This report summarizes the results of samples collected from various sources.
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PR-015-19602-R01 Water in Oil Meter Technology Testing
Author(s): Amy McCleney
Abstract/Introduction:
Water-cut meters measure the water content in a crude-oil stream and can use different sensor technologies and approaches to achieve this measurement. Each of these technology types has advantages and limitations for use in certain operating conditions. Current industry knowledge about the performance and limitations of the different technology meters for measuring a wide range of water cuts has not been extensively quantified. This testing effort was initiated to determine the stability and accuracy of different water-cut meters by flowing a crude-oil stream of water content through these meters. The performance of the different water-cut meters were assessed at a constant 100-gpm flow rate, two sweeps of water-cut ranges from 0% to 5% and 0% to 20%, and two different crude oils. To provide a reference water content, fluid samples were manually drawn from the flow loop upstream of the meters for each test point following API MPMS Ch. 8.1 (2019). The fluid samples were handled and mixed in accordance with API MPMS Ch. 8.3 (2019), and were assessed using two different analysis methods: a Karl Fisher Titration method using ASTM D4928 (2018) for the nominal 0% to 5% water-cut tests, and a centrifuge method using ASTM D4007 (2016) for the nominal 0% to 20% water-cut tests. The results from this testing effort will allow the PRCI members to assess the accuracy and stability of different water-cut meters and to select a water-cut metering technology that is most compatible with their operating conditions.
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PR-015-19602-R02 Water in Oil Meter Technology Testing
Author(s): Amy McCleney
Abstract/Introduction:
Water-cut meters measure the water content in a crude-oil stream and can use different sensor technologies and approaches to achieve this measurement. Each of these technology types has advantages and limitations for use in certain operating conditions. Current industry knowledge about the performance and limitations of the different technology meters for measuring a wide range of water cuts has not been extensively quantified. This testing effort was initiated to determine the stability and accuracy of different water-cut meters by flowing a crude-oil stream of water content through these meters. The performance of the different water-cut meters was assessed at a constant 100-gpm flow rate, two sweeps of water-cut ranges from 0% to 5% and 0% to 20%, and two different crude oils. To provide a reference water content, fluid samples were manually drawn from the flow loop upstream of the meters for each test point following API MPMS Ch. 8.1 (2019). The fluid samples were handled and mixed in accordance with API MPMS Ch. 8.3 (2019), and were assessed using two different analysis methods: a Karl Fisher Titration method using ASTM D4928 (2018) for the nominal 0% to 5% water-cut tests, and a centrifuge method using ASTM D4007 (2016) for the nominal 0% to 20% water-cut tests. The results from this testing effort will allow the PRCI members to assess the accuracy and stability of different water-cut meters and to select a water-cut metering technology that is most compatible with their operating conditions.
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PR-015-19603-R01 Practical Effects of Rough-Walled Pipe in Gas Metering Applications
Author(s): Terry Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
The influence of upstream pipe roughness on the performance of multipath ultrasonic flow meters was examined through a cursory literature review and an examination of experimental test data supplied by the natural gas industry. The results of these efforts were used to develop a recommendation for additional testing whereby the results of that testing can be combined with these results and potentially be used to support changes in the practices recommended by current industry standards.
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PR-352-15600-Z01 USM Uncertainty Estimate From Diagnostics
Author(s): Richard Rans
Abstract/Introduction:
A method to calculate a common set of Ultrasonic meter Gaussian quadrature 0.809R/0.309R velocity diagnostics has been developed for multi-path Ultrasonic meters with Gaussian and proprietary path configurations. An uncertainty model has been developed using the changes between the meters 0.809R/0.309R calibration velocity diagnostics and the meters 0.809R/0.309R first flow/recalibration velocity diagnostics to estimate a Maximum Gaussian Risk/Probable Gaussian Risk calibration transfer uncertainty.
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PR-352-16603-Z02 Multi-Vendor USM Test and Calibration Database
Author(s): Richard Rans
Abstract/Introduction:
Data collection protocols and a common database have been developed to ensure complete and consistent collection of ultrasonic meter (USM) calibration data, logs files and documentation of test piping layout. By using an Excel input table spreadsheet, with instructions on how to organize the collected data, users can easily input data from multiple types of ultrasonic meters. The database retains the original calibration and log file data and processes the test results into standardized velocity and speed of sound reports. This organization supports reporting the original meter specific log file data and diagnostics as well as common velocity/speed of sound analysis of the test results. As the database of test results grows over time, additional comparative and what if analysis of the test results will provide insight into ultrasonic meter measurement capabilities. This report describes the database design and data processing data flow. It is targeted at IT professionals who will install, operate and maintain the database. This report has a related webinar.
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PR-352-16603-Z03 Multi-Vendor USM Test and Calibration Database with Common Diagnostics
Author(s): Richard Rans
Abstract/Introduction:
Data collection protocols and a common database have been developed to ensure complete and consistent collection of USM calibration data, logs files and documentation of test piping layout. By using an Excel input table spreadsheet, with instructions on how to organize the collected data, users can easily input data from multiple types of ultrasonic meters. The database retains the original calibration and log file data and processes the test results into standardized velocity and speed of sound reports. This organization supports reporting the original meter specific log file data and diagnostics as well as common velocity/speed of sound analysis of the test results. As the database of test results grows over time, additional comparative and what if analysis of the test results will provide insight into ultrasonic meter measurement capabilities. By adding common diagnostic analysis to the database and using the results of existing PRCI installation effect tests, the quantitative high/median RSS risk associated with changes in piping has been determined. This quantitative risk estimate can be applied to controlling the changes between calibration and operating conditions. This zip file contains the related report, the corresponding database with data, installation instructions, and the corresponding reporting tools.
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PR-363-18605-R01 High Pressure Calibration of Turbines with an Inert Gas
Author(s): Emmelyn Graham
Abstract/Introduction:
More cost-effective high-pressure calibrations could be provided by using inert gas instead of natural gas. However, the impact of the different gas properties must be investigated to reduce any bias that could result in substantial financial risks for trading large volumes of gases. The research objective was to develop and test a transfer model for turbine flowmeters that could be used to translate a calibration in an inert gas to be suitable for use in natural gas applications. This report covers the turbine flow meter modelling and verification data for the transfer of turbine flow meter calibrations between natural gas and an inert gas.
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PR-461-18601-R01 Solvent Replacement Methods for Sediment and Water Content in Crude Samples
Author(s): Andrea Sedgwick,Rubia Mariath
Abstract/Introduction:
There are two methods broadly used for sediments and water (S&W) content determination, centrifuge method, and the Karl Fischer titration. They consume a significant quantity of toxic hazardous solvents such as Toluene, o-xylene, and chloroform. These particular solvents impose great risk to the health of the frontline workers and generate large amounts of liquid waste disposal, a detrimental effect on the environment. PRCI MEAS-16-01 Project Team has identified the need to study the feasibility of solvent replacement for the current methods used for measuring the S&W contents in crude samples. The proposed project seeks to reduce the use of hazardous and toxic solvents, aid in environmental stewardship, and increase the health and safety of frontline workers while in operation.
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PR-663-19600-Z01 Develop Guidance for Calculation of HCDP in Pipelines
Author(s): Warren Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
To maintain the integrity and reliability of natural gas transportation systems, system operators ensure that products in transit remain in the gas phase under foreseeable operating conditions. Compliance with pipeline hydrocarbon dew point (HCDP) specifications are demonstrated though in-situ testing or predictive models based on Equations of State (EOS) calculations. Numerical prediction of HCDP is a product of contributing elements, including gas chromatography, calibration gas quality, thermophysical science and the experimental data that underpins equations of state. Some hydrocarbon mixtures, such as those from non-traditional gas supplies, are more difficult to sample and assess than others. The methods described in this paper and accompanying spreadsheet examples are designed to assist persons in making technically defendable decisions with respect to predictive methods and the operational impacts of liquid dropout. The primary focus of this work is to connect the over-all performance of HCDP prediction to its operational implications. The secondary objective of the work is to provide tools for assessing the potential benefit from using C9+ versus C6+ gas chromatographs.
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PR-720-20603-R01 Emerging Fuels - Hydrogen SOTA Gap Analysis and Future Project Roadmap
Author(s): Kim Domptail,Shannon Hildebrandt,Graham Hill,David Maunder,Fred Taylor,Vanessa Win
Abstract/Introduction:
The overall goal of the study is to develop a concrete path forward to define the necessary projects that need to be completed for companies to safely and reliably inject hydrogen into their pipelines at certain blend levels. The study was broken down into four main tasks as follows: - Mapping of worldwide projects and references, - State-of-the-art analysis, - Gap analysis, and - Recommendations for R&D topics. The analysis focused around 8 technical subjects including: - Integrity, - Safety, - Network & End-Use Equipment, - Metering & Gas Quality, - Network Management & Compression, - Inspection & Maintenance, - Hydrogen-Natural Gas Separation, and - Underground Gas Storage.
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PR306-20604-R01 Emerging Fuels - RNG SOTA Gap Analysis and Future Project Roadmap
Author(s): Amelie Louvat
Abstract/Introduction:
The overall goal of the study is to develop a concrete path forward to define the necessary projects that need to be completed for companies to transport Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) into their pipelines at best cost while managing impacts. The study was broken down into four main tasks as follows: (1) Mapping of worldwide projects and references, (2) State-of-the-art analysis, (3) Gap analysis, and (4) Recommendations for R&D topics. The analysis focused around 10 technical subjects including: - RNG Composition, - Injection and dilution-related impacts on gas grids, - Safety, - Analyzers, - Odorization, - Metering, - Global Injection System, - Storage, - Reverse Flow Injection System, and - Gathering lines for biogas.
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