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Title: Custody Transfer Metering In The Liberalised European Market
Author: Dr. Klaus Altfeld
Source: 2002 International Symposium on Fluid Flow Measurement
Year Published: 2002
Abstract: Over recent years, gas trading in Europe has undergone significant quantitative and structural change. This is particularly evident when one compares the integrated European gas transmission pipeline network of 1970 with that of 2000 (Figures 1 & 2) and looks at the development of natural gas consumption in western Europe (Figure 3). While the gas industries of the early 1970s served mainly home markets, with little or no trade across borders, todays industry shows a marked Europeanisation. Prominent signs of European integration in the gas industry include the Interconnector between the UK and Belgium, the link between North Africa and Italy, the pipelines connecting the Nordic countries Denmark and Sweden to the integrated European network and the Spanish / Portuguese pipeline from Cordoba to Lisbon. The internationalisation of gas trade is closely entwined with developments in gas measurement because the commodity natural gas is being traded in ever growing quantities, with energy measurement becoming more and more accurate. Improvements in this field are not only due to more sophisticated technologies (ultrasonic gas meters, process gas chromatographs etc.) and fundamental studies (S-GERG equation etc.), but are also the result of international cooperation, harmonisation and the establishment of common codes and standards. This paper describes the development of techniques currently used to measure large natural gas flows at newly built stations and the procedures employed for meter verification and calibration. New developments in the measurement of gas property variables (particularly the superior calorific value) are also described and discussed.




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